NATURAL GAS - FROM RESOURCE TO RESIDENCE
Natural gas having a higher heating value of maximum 10.427 kcal/m3, minimum 8.100 kcal/m3 and density of approximately 0,067 kg/m3 is extracted in Russia and afterwards transported to Turkey through pipelines located in Ukraine, Moldavia, Romania and Bulgaria.
The quantification and filtration of incoming gas to Turkey is conducted at Malkoçlar Fiscal Metering and Filtering Station. The pressure of the natural gas having decreased towards 35 bars at Malkoçlar and Kırklareli Gas Compressor Stations is increased to 70 bars again.
At Marmara Ereğlisi LNG Station, the liquefied natural gas (LNG) transported from Algeria, Nigeria etc. is regasified and injected to the system in the gas state.
At Esenyurt RMS Station, the pressure of the natural gas coming to Istanbul is reduced from 70 bars to 20 bars and the filtration, analysis, odorization and heating processes are performed. Natural gas is distributed to the European side of Istanbul is from this station.
Passing across Marmara Sea, natural gas is transported to the Anatolian side of Istanbul from Avcılar Ambarlı to the coast of Pendik through two 30-inch pipes of 106 km length located at about 100 meters depth.
Odorization stations located in Pendik and Esenyurt odorize natural gas by way of adding certain chemical substances. Mostly, thiols and thioethers are utilized for odorization and these substances make natural gas smell like rotten garlic.
With Tie-in and/or Hot-Tap operations, gas can be dispatched to new lines constructed over the steel line for the purpose of expanding the network. The operation called “hot-top” can be realized without interrupting gas flow to the network.
To control the flow of natural gas moving through steel lines, valves in valve chambers on the network are utilized. These valve chambers are constructed underground with a special design.
Natural gas coming to the regional regulator with 20-bar pressure is reduced to 4 bars. After being filtered, the gas is dispatched to the polyethylene distribution lines.
Natural gas is carried from the regional regulator to service boxes through polyethylene (PE) pipes of 126, 110 and 63 mm in diameter. Installation of the network to all streets is performed under highly difficult conditions because of the complicated infrastructure of the huge metropolis of Istanbul.
Natural gas coming from the regional regulators as 4 bars reaches the end customer through the service boxes. These boxes decrease the pressure of the natural gas to 21 mbar and 300 mbar according to customer requirement.
After the service box, natural gas reaches the installation inside the building, and before being served to the end user, it is tested and controlled for leak tightness. Gas is supplied after the safety of the installation is maintained. The operation of supplying gas to the interior installation is realized.
The natural gas network of Istanbul is supervised 24 hours / 7 days, and leakages, accidents and malfunctions are immediately identified. All the emergency calls coming to the187 Natural Gas Emergency line are reached in an average of 15 minutes and intervened immediately.
Through IGDAS Infrastructure Information System (IGABIS), the maps of the natural gas network including all the streets and building information of Istanbul are prepared digitally and uploaded to the computer system.
Through Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System, the whole natural gas network of Istanbul can be supervised 24 hours in digital media, and in case of any possible problems, identified 187 Natural Gas Emergency teams are ordered to intervene immediately.